Aurangabad


Aurangabad Aurangabad (Marathi: औरंगाबाद, Urdu: اورنگ‌آباد),  pronunciation is a city in theAurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. Aurangabad (meaning "Built by the Throne") is named after the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The city is a tourist hub, surrounded with many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCOWorld Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara. The administrative headquarters of theAurangabad Division or Marathwada region, Aurangabad is said to be a City of Gates and the strong presence of these can be felt as one drives through the city. Recently Aurangabad has been declared as Tourism Capital of Maharashtra.[1] The city is also one of the fastest growing cities in the world.

History




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Main article: History of Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Aurangabad was founded in 1610 A.D. by Malik Ambar, the Prime Minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, on the site of a village called Khadki. He made it his capital and the men of his army raised their dwellings around it. Within a decade, Khadki grew into a populous and imposing city. Malik Ambar cherished strong love and ability for architecture. Aurangabad was Ambar's architectural achievement and creation. Malik Ambar died in 1626.[3] He was succeeded by his son Fateh Khan, who changed the name of Khadki to Fatehnagar. With the capture of Daulatabad previously known as Devagiri by the imperial troops in 1633, the Nizam Shahi dominions, including Fatehnagar, came under the possession of the Moghals.
In 1653 when Prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad. Aurangabad is sometimes referred to as Khujista Bunyad by the Chroniclers of Aurangzeb's reign.
Bibi Ka Maqbara was built in 1660 by Aurangzeb's son, Azam Shah, as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam. In 1720, Nizam-ul-Mulk Asif Jah, a distinguished General of Aurangzeb with the intention of founding his own dynasty in the Deccan, arrived at Aurangabad and made it his capital. He paid a visit to Delhi in 1723, but returned in 1724, Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah II transferred his capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763

1857 War of Independence

The Indian Mutiny: General Woodburn's Moveable Brigade Aurungabad 1857
The year 1857 was eventful in the history of Aurangabad with the rest of the country. The British moved the first cavalry from Mominabad (Ambejogai) to Aurangabad, in order to relieve 3rd cavalry which had marched to Malegaon, and was the first regiment to show signs of disaffection. The 2nd Infantry also came under suspicion. The authorities at Hyderabad were kept informed of the course of events by express. Upon this, a column of troops was ordered to march from Pune to Aurangabad. In the meanwhile, the artillery was also showing signs of rebellion, but the rumour of Bombay troops marching towards Aurangabad had a quieting effect. The men of the cavalry also returned to their posts.
The Pune force was under the command of General Woodburn. Upon his arrival, General Woodburn marched straight to the encampment of the 3rd Cavalry, and the disaffected regiment was ordered out to a dismounted parade. The rissaldar of the first troop was directed to call out the names of the revolutionaries, and commenced by giving the name of the senior jamadar, who ordered his men to load their carbines. By this time the General with his staff and the English officers were mixed up with the disaffected troops, and hence the guns could not be used to put down the latter. In the confusion that followed, some of the troopers broke away, ran to their horses and fled away. The guns were fired upon them and the Hussars were sent in pursuit; but several of them managed to escape. A dafadar of the cavalry, Mir Fida Ali by name, fired a shot at his commanding officer, Captain Abbott. For this act of his, he was tried by a drum-head, court-martialed and hanged. The court-martial continued its sittings, and 24 men were condemned, of whom 21 were, shot and three blown away from guns. About two-thirds of the regiment which had remained quiet was marched to Edalabad and recruited to its full strength by men from the other three regiments of the cavalry. Subsequently the third cavalry served throughout the campaign under Sir Hugh Rose.[4]
Photographs taken by Lala Deen Dayal & others in the 19th century, sourced from the British Library,